What benefits does zkEVM technology bring to Caduceus? (Part 2)
The zkEVM has a lot of potential for growth in the crypto industry. It addresses the scalability challenges faced by Ethereum while still allowing for the deployment of smart contracts and maintaining compatibility with existing applications. Despite the fact that many zkEVMs are currently in development, the progress being made in zero-knowledge technology suggests that a fully functional zkEVM will be available soon. In Caduceus, the zkEVM serves the purpose of emulating the same programming languages and bytecode as the EVM, which results in high compatibility with it. This makes it possible for the zkEVM to work with existing EVM-based applications and tools, while also providing faster finalization, safe scalability, and lower costs.
The current zkVM technology is divided into several categories including mainstream (WASM, RISC-V), EVM-compatible (using EVM bytecode), and those specifically designed for zero-knowledge proof (such as Cairo and zkSync). Without compatibility with the EVM and its programming languages, it would be difficult for zkVM to have a fully mature and robust Web3 development environment similar to that of the EVM.
To address this, the zkEVM is designed to emulate the same high-level programming languages and low-level bytecode as the EVM, resulting in a higher degree of compatibility with the EVM. However, creating such zkEVMs can be more challenging due to the advanced engineering required.
The EVM uses a virtual machine to execute a specific set of instructions known as opcodes, which are used to carry out various operations. The goal of bytecode-compatible zkEVM is to create a zero-knowledge system that can verify EVM bytecode and understand the different opcodes it contains. By being compatible with EVM-based applications and tools, these zkEVMs can benefit from this compatibility.
A completely bytecode-compatible zkEVM would also have the same debugging tools and development infrastructure as native Ethereum apps. However, achieving this level of compatibility can lead to inefficiencies and high costs in ZK systems. To address this, some zkEVMs may choose to exclude certain EVM features, such as precompilation, which can be difficult to verify using ZK math and cryptography in order to keep costs low and increase efficiency.
The zkEVM currently has two main implementation strategies: one being direct compatibility with the EVM opcode set and the Solidity programming language, as seen in the implementations by Hermez and the Ethereum Foundation’s zkEVM. The other approach is maintaining compatibility by creating a new virtual machine optimized for zero-knowledge proofs, which is used by Caduceus.
The first strategy allows for seamless integration with current ecosystems and development tools, as well as better adherence to the Ethereum security model. On the other hand, the second strategy offers greater flexibility and eliminates the need to be strictly compatible with the original EVM opcode set. Caduceus implements the second strategy and has the following features: support for EVM smart contracts, compatibility with Solidity programming, and a secure and expandable environment for DApps within the Caduceus ecosystem. Additionally, Caduceus enhances its zkEVM with other technologies like VR, AI, and big data, achieving a TPS of over 100,000 per second.
For developers, Caduceus provides a familiar and easy-to-use environment for deploying products, similar to Ethereum or other EVM-compatible chains, without the need for extensive adaptation of scripts and designs. As the Web3 and cryptography industries continue to grow, the zkEVM has a lot of potential and room for growth. It addresses the scalability issues of Ethereum and allows for the deployment of smart contracts and application compatibility. Caduceus uses zkEVM, modularization, and other technologies to reach TPS of more than 100,000 per second. As the demand for Web3 developers increases, the zkEVM will become a strong tool for building the ‘App Store’ of the Metaverse, as Caduceus can operate the highest number of applications, provide a secure and reliable settlement layer, and ultimately become a major player in the Web3 ecosystem.
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